A recent article in the Economist discusses a study that says perhaps yes:
Dr Costa and his colleagues interviewed 317 people, all of whom spoke two languages—mostly English plus one of Spanish, Korean or French. Half of each group were randomly assigned the dilemma in their native tongue. The other half answered the problem in their second language. When asked in their native language, only 20% of subjects said they would push the fat man. When asked in the foreign language, the proportion jumped to 33%.
The effect is most clear when the language speakers are not totally comfortable and fluent in the second language; the researchers' hypothesis is that perhaps the added thought process of mental translation gives you some more distance and objectivity. Culture and language themselves don't explain the phenomenon, the article adds. This is all quite meaningful in a world that is becoming increasingly multilingual.
(A note: The dilemma they asked people about, unfortunately, is called "the fat-man dilemma" in the article, and is about pushing someone in front of a train to save other people. I say unfortunately because reading this in a culture that vilifies fatness so much, it seems problematic to hear people talking casually or academically about hypothetically murdering a fat person. But the "Trolley problem," as it also is known, is a long-studied dilemma. Wikipedia has more.)