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Also, how did you work at a brewery and not know the process? Like, just totally incurious?
The mix of grain (fancy word is grist) affects the color, flavor and body of the beer.
Malt is not extruded from the grain. The malt is the grain, the grain is the malt. Called malt because it has been malted.
The mash tun is where the grains are steeped in hot water somewhere between 146 and 160f. The temp you choose has a major effect on the body, and sweetness(maltiness) of the beer. There are 2 enzymes present in the grain that break the starches down into sugars, some the yeast can eat, and some it can't. If you go low in the temp range, the starches are converted to simple sugars, mostly maltose, that the yeast can eat very easily, so a dry beer results. Saisons, pilsners and even some of the less interesting IPA's and Pale Ales go low. Higher temps are the opposite, used for stouts, malty lagers, etc. You are also determining the color of beer and the eventual alcohol content mostly in the mash tun. (kettle carmelization can affect both a little.)
After the mash is complete, 90 minutes or so for the pros, it is time to sparge. Sparge is a verb, not the resulting liquid. It means to rinse. So they are rinsing the grain from the top by adding hot water without disturbing the grain bed, and letting that flow through into the boil kettle. That liquid is called wort, or sweet wort to differentiate it from the boiled wort. It tastes like sugar water.
You got the hop additions mostly right. However, the bittering addition does not affect the body of the beer. It affects the bitterness and the balance of the beer. The perceived sweetness is balanced by the bitterness of the first edition hops.
And, most people whirlpool in the kettle. I'm not saying they don't have a separate tank for that, but is sounds to me like it may be a centrifuge that you are describing, not a whirlpool.
It seems like this is just a little throw away article, but it was really irritating that sooo much was wrong on one of the very few subjects I know something about.